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Chapter 11 Learning Objectives

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1. Describe the symptoms of early pregnancy and provide a thorough explanation of the mechanism by which the conceptus signals its presence to the mother. Explain how this signal is the basis for commercial pregnancy tests.


Textbook Reference: Pregnancy Is Confirmed by Hormonal Tests, pp. 320–321


2. Describe the methods that can be employed to maximize the probability of a woman’s becoming pregnant.


Textbook Reference: The Likelihood of Pregnancy Can Be Maximized by Tracking Ovulation, p. 321


3. Survey the types of fertility problems that stem from defective sperm production.


Textbook Reference: Infertility Can Result from a Problem in the Woman or in the Man, pp. 322–329


4. Survey the types of fertility problems associated with ovulation and the female reproductive structures and comment on the effects of age on male and female fertility.


Textbook Reference: Infertility Can Result from a Problem in the Woman or in the Man, pp. 322–329


5. Detail some of the methods that are being used to help subfertile couples procreate and discuss issues pertaining to the source and ownership of gametes in these procedures.


Textbook Reference: Infertility Can Result from a Problem in the Woman or in the Man, pp. 322–329


6. Review the major threats to the survival of any given conceptus.


Textbook Reference: Many Embryos Do Not Survive, pp. 329–331


7. Review the major events of the first trimester of pregnancy from the perspective of the fetus and also that of the mother. Identify and describe major threats to the well-being of the fetus during this time.


Textbook Reference: Pregnancy Is Conventionally Divided into Three Trimesters, pp. 331–336


8. Review the major events of the second trimester of pregnancy from the perspective of the fetus and also that of the mother. Identify and describe diagnostic tests used to check the development of the fetus.


Textbook Reference: The Second Trimester Is the Easiest, pp. 336–340


9. Review the major events of the third trimester of pregnancy from the perspective of the fetus and also that of the mother. What decisions and preparations should the parents-to-be make at this time?


Textbook Reference: The Third Trimester Is a Time of Preparation, pp. 340–343


10. Review the major events of labor, including the initiating signals and preparation of the fetus, effacement, dilation, and delivery. Also discuss the anesthetic and analgesic options that are available and some of the risks associated with a pre-term birth and a delayed birth.


Textbook Reference: Labor Has Three Stages, pp. 343–349


11. Discuss the postpartum period from the following perspectives: physical recovery, depression, interpersonal relationships, and sexuality.


Textbook Reference: The Period after Birth Places Many Demands on Parents, pp. 349–350


12. Discuss the physiological mechanisms, advantages, and drawbacks of breast-feeding.


Textbook Reference: Breast-Feeding Is the Preferred Method of Nourishing the Infant, pp. 351–353


13. Briefly outline the biological mechanisms that appear to facilitate maternal behavior in non-human animals.


Textbook Reference: Biological Mechanisms May Contribute to Maternal Behavior, pp. 353–354


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