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Chapter 2 Learning Objectives

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1. Provide an overview of the process of evolution by natural selection, noting specifically the emergence and reproductive characteristics of eukaryotic cells.

Textbook Reference: Diverse Methods of Reproduction Have Evolved, pp. 29–31

2. Summarize the major steps involved in both mitosis and meiosis.

Textbook Reference: Diverse Methods of Reproduction Have Evolved, pp. 29–31

3. Outline the various explanations that have been proposed to account for the evolution of sexual reproduction and its commonality across species.

Textbook Reference: Rival Theories Offer Explanations for Sexual Reproduction, pp. 31–35

4. Discuss the major evolutionary issues in the development and maintenance of two sexes in most species. What theoretical issues are raised by the existence of sexless species, and what processes regulate sex ratios in other species?

Textbook Reference: Why Are There Two Sexes? pp. 35–39

5. Describe mammalian sex determination and compare it to sex determination in many reptilian species.

Textbook Reference: Evolution Has Led to Diverse Methods of Sex Determination, pp. 39–41

6. Explain the mechanics of sexual selection—the pressures that are exerted and the effects that they have on the anatomy, appearance, and behavior of animals. Illustrate your main points with examples from various species.

Textbook Reference: Sexual Selection Produces Anatomical and Behavioral Differences between Males and Females, pp. 41–47

7. Discuss the distinction between social arrangements and sexual reality in animal liaisons, and how there may be a mismatch between the two. In particular, analyze and contrast the costs and benefits of promiscuity for males and females.

Textbook Reference: Diverse Relationship Styles Have Evolved, pp. 48–52

8. Explain kin selection theory and the concept of inclusive fitness, and then show how these concepts explain much, but not all, altruistic behavior.

Textbook Reference: Sometimes, Helping Relatives Reproduce Is a Good Strategy, pp. 52–53

9. With special reference to bonobos, discuss the evolution and possible functions of nonreproductive sex.

Textbook Reference: Sex Has Acquired Other Functions beyond Reproduction, pp. 53–56