Chapter 17 Flashcards & Key Terms

acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
The disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); its onset is defined by the occurrence of any of a number of opportunistic infections, or on the basis of blood tests.
acyclovir
A drug used in the treatment of genital herpes.
AIDS dementia
A broad cognitive impairment caused by HIV infection.
antiretroviral drugs
Drugs effective against retroviruses.
asymptomatic carrier
Someone who is infected with a disease organism but is not experiencing symptoms.
bacterial vaginosis
A condition in which the normal microorganisms of the vagina are replaced by other species, causing discomfort and a foul-smelling discharge.
capsid
An array of protein molecules surrounding the core of a virus.
CD4 lymphocytes
A type of lymphocyte that carries the CD4 receptor; one of the major targets of HIV.
chancre
A primary sore on the skin or a mucous membrane in a person infected with syphilis. (Pronounced SHANK-er.)
chlamydia
A sexually transmitted disease caused by infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
envelope
A lipid outer membrane possessed by some viruses.
epididymitis
Inflammation of the epididymis.
genital herpes
An infection of the genital area caused by HSV-2 or (less commonly) HSV-1.
genital warts
Wartlike growths on or near the genitalia or anus, caused by infection with human papillomavirus.
gonorrhea
A sexually transmitted disease caused by infection with the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
hepatitis A
Liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus. It is sometimes transmitted sexually.
hepatitis B
Liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus, a virus that is often transmitted sexually.
hepatitis viruses
Viruses that cause liver disease.
highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
Combinations of antiretroviral drugs that have proved effective in the treatment or prevention of AIDS.
HIV-symptomatic disease
Health problems caused by HIV, especially those that occur before the criteria for an AIDS diagnosis have been met.
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
The retrovirus that causes AIDS.
human papillomavirus (HPV)
Any of a group of viruses that can be sexually transmitted and that cause genital warts or other lesions; some types predispose infected persons to cancer of the cervix or anus.
jaundice
Yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes, caused by liver disease.
latent phase
An asymptomatic phase of syphilis or other infectious disease.
molluscum contagiosum
A skin condition marked by small raised growths; it is caused by a pox virus.
mycoplasmas
A group of very small cellular organisms that may cause urethritis.
nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)
Urethritis not caused by gonorrhea.
oral herpes
Herpes infection of the mouth, caused by HSV-1 or (less commonly) HSV-2.
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
An infection of the female reproductive tract, often caused by sexually transmitted organisms.
post-exposure prophylaxis
A drug treatment designed to prevent establishment of an infection after exposure to a disease agent such as HIV.
pre-exposure prophylaxis
A drug taken before exposure to a disease agent to prevent infection.
primary syphilis
The first phase of syphilis, marked by the occurrence of a chancre.
pubic lice
Insects (Phthirus pubis) that preferentially infest the pubic region.
reportable disease
A disease, cases of which must by law be reported to health authorities.
retrovirus
An RNA virus whose genome is transcribed into DNA within the host cell.
scabies
Infestation with a mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) that burrows within the skin.
secondary syphilis
The second phase of syphilis, marked by a rash and fever.
seroconversion
The change from negative to positive on an antibody test, such as occurs a few weeks or months after HIV infection.
spirochete
Any of a class of corkscrew-shaped bacteria, including the agent that causes syphilis.
syphilis
A sexually transmitted disease caused by a spirochete, Treponema pallidum.
tertiary syphilis
The third phase of syphilis, marked by multiple organ damage.
trichomoniasis
Infection with the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis.
urethritis
Inflammation of the urethra, usually caused by an infection.
venereal disease
Obsolete term for a sexually transmitted disease.
virus
An extremely small infectious agent. When not inside a host cell, viruses are metabolically inert but infectious.
wasting
Progressive and extreme loss of body weight.
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