Chapter 11 Flashcards & Key Terms

afterbirth
The placenta, whose delivery constitutes the final stage of labor.
alpha-fetoprotein
A protein whose presence at elevated levels in the blood of a pregnant woman is suggestive of neural tube defects in the fetus.
amniocentesis
The sampling of the amniotic fluid for purposes of prenatal diagnosis.
artificial insemination by donor (AID)
Artificial insemination using sperm from a man who is not the woman’s partner.
artificial insemination
An assisted reproduction technique that involves the placement of semen in the vagina or uterus with the aid of a syringe or small tube.
assisted reproductive technology (ART)
In vitro fertilization and related technologies.
basal body temperature (BBT)
Body temperature measured in the morning before getting out of bed.
birth canal
The canal formed by the uterus, cervix, and vagina, through which the fetus passes during parturition.
birthing center
A facility specializing in childbirth care.
Bradley method
A method of childbirth instruction that stresses the partner’s role as birth coach and that seeks to avoid medical interventions.
Braxton-Hicks contractions
Irregular uterine contractions that occur during the third trimester of pregnancy. Also called false labor.
cervical mucus
Mucus, the consistency of which varies around the menstrual cycle, secreted by glands in the cervix.
cesarean section (C-section)
The delivery of a baby through an incision in the abdominal wall and the uterus.
chorionic villus sampling
The sampling of tissue from the placenta for purposes of prenatal diagnosis.
colostrum
The milk produced during the first few days after birth; it is relatively low in fat but rich in immunoglobulins.
contraction
In childbirth, a periodic coordinated tightening of the uterine musculature, felt as a cramp.
couvade
Pregnancy-like symptoms in the male partner of a pregnant women.
crowning
The appearance of the fetal scalp at the vaginal opening.
delayed labor
Labor that occurs more than 3 weeks after a woman’s due date.
depressive psychosis
Depression accompanied by seriously disordered thinking.
dilation
In childbirth, the expansion of the cervical canal. Also called dilatation.
Down syndrome
A collection of birth defects caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21.
ectopic pregnancy
Implantation and resulting pregnancy at any site other than the uterus.
effacement
Thinning of the cervix in preparation for childbirth.
engagement
The sinking of a fetus’s head into a lower position in the pelvis in preparation for birth. Also called lightening.
epidural anesthesia
Anesthesia administered just outside the membrane that surrounds the spinal cord.
episiotomy
A cut extending the opening of the vagina backward into the perineum, performed by an obstetrician with the intention of facilitating childbirth or reducing the risk of a perineal tear.
fetal alcohol syndrome
A collection of physical and behavioral symptoms in a child who was exposed to high levels of alcohol as a fetus.
gestational age
A fetus’s age timed from the onset of the mother’s last menstrual period.
gestational surrogate
A woman who carries a pregnancy on behalf of another woman or couple.
glycogen
A polymer of glucose used for energy storage.
in vitro fertilization (IVF)
Any of a variety of assisted reproduction techniques in which fertilization takes place outside the body.
incompetent cervix
A weakening and partial opening of the cervix caused by a previous traumatic delivery, surgery, or other factors.
induced labor
Labor induced artificially by drugs.
infant formula
Manufactured breast milk substitute.
infertility
Inability (of a man, woman, or couple) to achieve pregnancy.
intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
An assisted reproduction technique in which a single sperm is injected into the cytoplasm of an ovum.
labor
The process of childbirth.
lactation
The production of milk in the mammary glands.
Lamaze method
A method of childbirth instruction that focuses on techniques of relaxation and other natural means of pain reduction.
lochia
A bloody vaginal discharge that may continue for a few weeks after childbirth.
mastitis
Inflammation of the breast.
milk let-down reflex
The ejection of milk into the milk ducts in response to suckling. Also called milk-ejection reflex.
Naegele’s rule
A traditional rule for the calculation of a pregnant woman’s due date: 9 calendar months plus 1 week after the onset of the last menstrual period.
nuchal translucency test
The ultrasonographic measurement of the skin fold at the neck of a fetus, useful in the prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome and other congenital anomalies. Also called nuchal fold test.
oligomenorrhea
Infrequent or irregular menstruation.
parturition
Delivery of offspring; childbirth.
placenta previa
An abnormally low position of the placenta, so that it partially or completely covers the internal opening of the cervix.
postpartum depression
Depression in a mother during the postpartum phase.
postpartum
The period after birth.
preconception care
Medical care and counseling provided to women before they become pregnant.
preimplantation genetic screening
Testing of in vitro fertilization embryos for genetic defects prior to implantation.
premature birth
Birth that occurs more than 3 weeks before a woman’s due date. Also called preterm birth.
prenatal care
Medical care and counseling provided to pregnant women.
prolactin
A protein hormone, secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, that promotes breast development, among other effects.
quickening
The onset of movements by the fetus that can be felt by the mother.
Rh factor
An antigen on the surface of red blood cells that, when present in a fetus but not in its mother, may trigger an immune response by the mother, resulting in life-threatening anemia of the fetus or newborn.
rubella
German measles, a viral infection that can cause developmental defects in fetuses whose mothers contract the disease during pregnancy.
secondary amenorrhea
Absence of menstruation in a woman who has previously menstruated normally.
softening
The elimination of connective tissue from the cervix, allowing it to thin out and dilate during labor. Also called ripening.
sperm bank
A facility that collects, stores, and provides semen for artificial insemination.
spina bifida
A congenital malformation caused by incomplete closure of the neural tube.
subfertility
Difficulty in establishing a pregnancy; arbitrarily defined as the absence of pregnancy after a couple has had frequent unprotected sex for 12 months.
surfactant
A protein that lowers surface tension in the lung, allowing inflation with air.
transition
The final phase of dilation of the cervix during labor.
trimester
One of three 3-month divisions of pregnancy.
ultrasound scan
An imaging procedure that depends on the reflection of ultrasonic waves from density boundaries within the body. Also called ultrasonographic scan.
wet nurse
A woman who breast-feeds someone else’s infant.
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