Chapter 5 Flashcards & Key Terms

5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
An androgen that plays an important role in the development of the male external genitalia.
5α-reductase
The enzyme that converts testosterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone.
adrenal gland
A gland near the kidney that secretes a variety of steroids, including sex steroids.
amenorrhea
Absence of menstruation.
anabolic
Tending to increase tissue mass.
androgen
Any of a class of steroids—the most important being testosterone—that promote male sexual development and that have a variety of other functions in both sexes.
anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)
A peptide hormone secreted by Sertoli cells of the testis that prevents the development of the female internal reproductive tract.
antrum
The cavity that forms in an ovarian follicle as it matures.
aromatase
The enzyme that converts testosterone to estradiol.
conceptus
The developing organism from the 2-cell stage onward, including both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues.
corpus luteum
A secretory structure in the ovary derived from an ovarian follicle after ovulation.
cumulus cells
A layer of cells, derived from the granulosa cells of an ovarian follicle, that surrounds the ovum after ovulation.
dopamine
A catecholamine that serves as a neurotransmitter and also as a hormone, inhibiting the release of prolactin from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
dysmenorrhea
Menstruation accompanied by pain.
estradiol
The principal estrogen, secreted by granulosa cells in ovarian follicles.
estrogen
Any of a class of steroids—the most important being estradiol—that promote the development of female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty and that have many other functions in both sexes.
first polar body
A small body containing the discarded chromosomes from an oocyte’s first meiotic division.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
One of the two major gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary gland; it promotes maturation of gametes.
follicular phase
The phase of the menstrual cycle during which follicles are developing under the influence of gonadotropins.
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
A hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of gonadotropins from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
gonadotropin
A hormone that regulates the function of the gonads.
granulosa-lutein cells
Cells within the corpus luteum that secrete progesterone.
growth hormone
A protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that promotes growth.
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
A gonadotropin secreted by the conceptus and by the placenta; it prevents regression of the corpus luteum.
inhibin
A peptide hormone involved in the interaction between the pituitary gland and the gonads as well as in other functions.
isoflavones
Estrogen-like compounds of plant origin.
luteal phase
The phase of the menstrual cycle between ovulation and the beginning of menstruation.
luteinizing hormone (LH)
One of the two major gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary gland; it promotes the secretion of androgens and, in females, participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle.
medial preoptic area
A region of the hypothalamus involved in the regulation of sexual behaviors typically shown by males.
median eminence
A region of the hypothalamus where GnRH is secreted, located immediately above the pituitary gland.
menorrhagia
Excessively heavy menstrual bleeding.
menstrual cramps
Sharp pelvic pains that may accompany or precede menstruation.
menstrual cup
A cup placed within the vagina that collects the menstrual flow.
menstrual toxic shock syndrome
A rare but life-threatening illness caused by a staphylococcal infection and associated with tampon use.
menstruation
The breakdown and shedding of the endometrium at approximately monthly intervals, with consequent loss of tissue and blood from the vagina.
mittelschmerz
Pain associated with ovulation.
monoamines
Compounds containing an amine group, including catecholamines and serotonin.
negative feedback
A control system in which a compound directly or indirectly lowers its own rate of synthesis or secretion.
oligomenorrhea
Infrequent or irregular menstruation.
ovulation
Release of an ovum from the ovary.
ovum
A mature female gamete, prior to or immediately after fertilization.
peptide
A polymer of amino acids, usually shorter than a protein.
pituitary gland
A gland situated below, and under the control of, the hypothalamus; its posterior lobe secretes oxytocin and vasopressin, and its anterior lobe secretes gonadotropins and other hormones.
postovulatory phase
An alternative term for luteal phase.
preantral follicle
A follicle that has enlarged but does not yet have an antrum.
premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)
PMS-associated mood changes that are severe enough to interfere with relationships.
premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
A collection of physical and/or psychological symptoms that may begin a few days before the menstrual period and continue into the period.
preovulatory follicle
The single, enlarged antral follicle that will ovulate in a particular cycle.
preovulatory phase
An alternative term for follicular phase.
primary amenorrhea
Failure to commence menstruation at puberty.
primary oocyte
An oocyte arrested in its first meiotic division.
primordial follicle
An undeveloped primary oocyte with its surrounding granulosa cells.
progesterone
A steroid hormone secreted by the ovary and the placenta; it is necessary for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy.
progestin (or progestagen)
Any of a class of steroids, the most important being progesterone, that cause the endometrium to proliferate and help maintain pregnancy. (The term progestin is sometimes reserved for synthetic compounds.)
prolactin
A protein hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that promotes breast development, among other effects.
prostaglandins
A group of nonsteroidal signaling molecules that, among many other functions, help prepare the uterus for childbirth.
protein
A long polymer made up of amino acids.
receptor
A molecular structure to which a hormone or neurotransmitter binds. Upon binding, the receptor triggers a specific cellular activity.
secondary oocyte
The oocyte in a preovulatory follicle after it has completed its first meiotic division.
serotonin
A monoamine derived from the amino acid tryptophan that functions as a neurotransmitter.
sex steroid
Any of the steroid hormones that are active in sexual and reproductive physiology.
spiral arteries
The arteries that supply blood to the endometrium.
testosterone
The principal androgen, synthesized in the testes and, in lesser amounts, in the ovaries and adrenal glands.
theca-lutein cells
Cells of the corpus luteum, derived from follicular thecal cells, that synthesize testosterone.
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