Chapter 3 Flashcards & Key Terms

alveolus (pl. alveoli)
Microscopic cavity, such as one of those in the breast where milk is produced.
ampulla
The middle portion of the oviduct, where fertilization usually occurs.
antrum
A cavity that forms in an ovarian follicle as it matures.
anus
The exit of the gastrointestinal tract.
areola
The circular patch of darker skin that surrounds the nipple.
bacterial vaginosis
A condition in which the normal microorganisms of the vagina are replaced by other species, causing discomfort and a foul-smelling discharge.
Bartholin’s glands
Glands at the introitus that discharge a small amount of fluid during sexual arousal.
biopsy
A tissue sample from a living person for diagnostic or (less commonly) for therapeutic purposes.
birth canal
The canal formed by the uterus, cervix, and vagina, through which the fetus passes during birth.
bulbospongiosus muscle
A muscle that attaches to the base of the clitoris or penis and assists with erection and (in men) ejaculation. In women, the internal portion of the muscle surrounds the introitus.
candidiasis
A fungal infection of the vagina. Also called thrush or a yeast infection.
cervix
The lowermost, narrow portion of the uterus that connects with the vagina.
cilia
Microscopic, hairlike extensions of cells, often capable of a coordinated beating motion.
clitoral hood
A loose fold of skin that covers the clitoris.
clitoris
The erectile organ in females, whose external portion is located at the junction of the labia minora, just in front of the vestibule.
coitus
Penetration of the vagina by the penis.
colposcopy
The examination of the cervix with the aid of an operating microscope.
corpus cavernosum (pl. corpora cavernosa)
Either of two elongated erectile structures within the penis or clitoris that also extend backward into the pelvic floor.
corpus spongiosum
A single midline erectile structure. In both sexes, it fills the glans; in males it extends backward along the underside of the penis, surrounding the urethra.
crus (pl. crura)
Internal extension of a corpus cavernosum of the clitoris or penis.
douche
To rinse the vagina out with a fluid; the fluid so used.
endometrial cancer
Cancer of the endometrium of the uterus.
endometriosis
The growth of endometrial tissue at abnormal locations such as the oviducts.
endometrium
The internal lining of the uterus.
erection
The expansion and stiffening of the clitoris, penis, or nipples in response to sexual stimulation or fantasy.
external genitalia
The sexual structures on the outside of the body.
fibroid
A noncancerous tumor arising from smooth muscle cells of the uterus.
fimbria
A fringe-like set of extensions from the infundibulum of the oviduct.
follicle
An oocyte with its supporting cells within the ovary.
glans
The terminal knob of the clitoris or penis.
Gräfenberg spot (G-spot)
A controversial area of increased erotic sensitivity on or deep within the front wall of the vagina.
granulosa cells
Cells within an ovarian follicle that support the oocyte and secrete sex steroids.
hymen
A membrane, usually perforated or incomplete, that covers the opening of the vagina. It may be ruptured by first coitus or by other means.
hysterectomy
Surgical removal of the uterus, sometimes along with the ovaries and oviducts.
imperforate hymen
A hymen that completely closes the introitus.
infundibulum
The flared-out portion of the oviduct close to the ovary.
introitus
The entrance to the vagina, usually covered early in life by the hymen.
ischiocavernosus muscle
One of the muscles that attach to the internal portions of the penis and clitoris. It assists with erection and (in men) ejaculation.
isthmus
The narrow portion of the oviduct close to the uterus.
labia majora
The outer lips: fleshy skin folds, partially covered in pubic hair, that extend from the mons.
labia minora
The inner lips: hairless, loose folds of skin located between the labia majora and immediately flanking the vestibule.
lactiferous sinus
One of the storage areas for milk near the nipple.
lobe
A subdivision of a gland or other region.
lobules
Small subdivisions of an organ, such as the breast.
mammary glands
The milk-producing glands within the breasts.
mammography
Radiographic inspection of the breasts.
mastectomy
Surgical removal of a breast.
menarche
The onset of menstruation at puberty.
menstruation
The breakdown of the endometrium at approximately monthly intervals, with consequent loss of tissue and blood from the vagina.
mons veneris (mons)
The frontmost component of the vulva: a mound of fatty tissue covering the pubic symphysis.
mucosa
A surface layer of cells (epithelium) that is lubricated by the secretions of mucous glands.
mucus
A thick or slippery secretion.
myometrium
The muscular layers of the wall of the uterus.
oocyte
A cell capable of developing into an ovum.
os
The opening in the cervix that connects the vagina with the cervical canal.
ovarian cysts
Cysts within the ovary that can arise from a number of different causes.
ovary
The female gonad; the organ that produces ova and secretes sex steroids.
oviduct
Either of two bilateral tubes that lead from the uterus toward the ovaries; the usual site of fertilization. Also called fallopian tube.
ovulation
Release of an ovum from the ovary.
ovum (pl. ova)
A mature female gamete, prior to or immediately after fertilization.
Pap test
The microscopic examination of a sample of epithelial cells taken from the cervix or (less commonly) the anus.
paraurethral glands
Glands situated next to the female urethra, thought to be equivalent to the larger prostate gland in males. Also known as Skene’s glands.
pelvic examination
A visual and digital examination of the vulva and pelvic organs.
pelvic floor
A muscular sling that underlies and supports the pelvic organs.
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
An infection of the female reproductive tract, often caused by sexually transmitted organisms.
perimetrium
The outer covering of the uterus.
perineum
The region of skin between the anus and the scrotum or vulva.
polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
A condition marked by excessive secretion of androgens by the ovaries.
prolapse
The slipping out of place of an organ, such as the uterus.
pubic hair
Hair that appears on portions of the external genitalia in both sexes at puberty.
pubic symphysis
The junction of the left and right pubic bones, the frontmost elements of the pelvic skeleton.
pubococcygeus muscle
A pair of muscles in the pelvic floor that form a sling around the vagina.
rectum
The lower, straight portion of the large bowel. It connects to the exterior via the anus.
reproductive tract
The internal anatomical structures in either sex that form the pathway taken by gametes or the conceptus.
secondary sexual characteristics
Anatomical characteristics, such as breasts and facial hair, that generally differ between the sexes but are not used to define an individual’s sex.
sexual intercourse
Sexual contact, usually understood to involve coitus.
smegma
A whitish, greasy secretion that builds up under the prepuce of the penis or clitoris.
smooth muscle
Muscular tissue that has no microscopic striations. Its contraction is usually involuntary and under the control of the autonomic nervous system.
sphincter
A circular muscle around an orifice whose contraction closes the orifice.
striated muscle
Muscular tissue that has microscopic striations. Its contraction is usually under voluntary control.
thecal cells
Cells located on the periphery of an ovarian follicle that synthesize sex steroids.
urethra
The canal that conveys urine from the bladder to the urethral opening. It also serves for the discharge of ejaculatory fluids, if they are present.
uterus
The womb; a pear-shaped region of the female reproductive tract through which sperm are transported and where the conceptus implants and develops.
vagina
A muscular tube extending 8 to 10 cm from the vestibule to the uterine cervix.
vestibular bulbs
Erectile structures beneath the labia minora, on either side of the vestibule.
vestibule
The potential space between the left and right labia minora.
vulva
The female external genitalia.
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