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Chapter 1 Flashcards & Key Terms

anatomist
Researcher who studies the structure of the body.
anthropology
The study of cultural or biological variations across the human race.
celibate
Living under a vow not to marry or (by implication) to engage in sexual relations.
clinical psychology
The assessment or treatment of mental or behavioral problems, as practiced by a psychologist.
cognitive psychology
The study of the information-processing systems of the mind.
control group
A group of subjects included in a study for comparison purposes.
cultural psychology
The study of the interactions between culture and mental processes or behaviors.
endocrinology
The study of glands and hormones.
erectile dysfunction
A persistent inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient to accomplish a desired sexual behavior such as coitus to orgasm. Earlier known as impotence.
ethnography
The study of a cultural group, often by means of extended individual fieldwork.
evolutionary psychology
The study of the influence of evolution on mental processes or behavior.
feminism
The movement to secure equality for women; the study of social and psychological issues from women’s perspectives.
gender
The collection of psychological traits that differ between males and females.
General Social Survey (GSS)
A long-running periodic survey of the U.S. population run by the National Opinion Research Center.
genetics
The study of the mechanisms of inheritance.
heterosexual
Sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex.
homosexual
Sexually attracted to persons of one’s own sex.
marriage and family counselor
Therapist who assesses or treats interpersonal problems arising between spouses or other intimate partners.
matrilineal
Tracing descent through the female line.
microbiology
The study of microscopic organisms, especially those that cause disease.
National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS)
A national survey of sexual behavior, relationships, and attitudes in the United States, conducted in the early 1990s.
National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NSSAL)
A British survey of sexual behavior, relationships, and attitudes conducted in the early 1990s.
National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB)
A national survey of sexual behavior in the United States, based at Indiana University and published in 2010.
neuroscience
The study of the nervous system.
ovum (pl. ova)
A mature female gamete, prior to or immediately after fertilization.
polygamy
Marriage to or (mostly in animals) mating with more than one partner.
procreation
Production of offspring.
psychobiology
The study of the biological bases of mental processes and behavior.
psychological anthropology
The study of the interaction of cultural and mental processes.
psychology
The study of mental processes and behavior.
reproductive physiology
The study of fertility and pregnancy.
script theory
The analysis of sexual and other behaviors as the enactment of socially instilled roles.
sex hormones
Chemical messengers that influence sexual and reproductive processes.
sex research
The scientific study of sex.
sex therapist
A person who treats sexual dysfunctions, usually by recommending behavioral changes and sexual exercises.
sexism
Prejudice or discrimination directed against one sex—usually women.
sexology
The scientific study of sex, especially of sexual dysfunctions.
sexual orientation
The direction of a person’s sexual feelings toward persons of the same sex, the other sex, or both sexes.
sexuality
The feelings, behaviors, and identities associated with sex.
social psychology
The study of our relationship to others.
socialization
The effect of social influences such as family, education, peer groups, and the media on the development of psychological or behavioral traits.
sociology
The scientific study of society.
spermatozoon (pl. spermatozoa)
A male gamete, produced in the testis.
transexual (or transsexual)
A person who identifies with the other sex and who seeks to transition to the other sex by means of hormone treatment and sex reassignment surgery. Transexuals can be male-to-female (M-to-F) or female-to-male (F-to-M).
transgender
Having a gender identity that is discordant with one’s anatomical sex.
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